Map Of The Week
Our Map of the Week highlights noteworthy work in public health and/or Geography. check here each week for a new map.
Beyond The Map: http://worldbreastfeedingweek.org/
This map shows percentage of Infants that are exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life.
The World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) emphasize the value of breastfeeding for mothers as well as children. Both recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and then supplemented breastfeeding for at least one year and up to two years or more.
Unlike most things that sound too good to be true, the list of benefits from breastfeeding is so long (and growing) that this practice could qualify as a bonafide magic bullet for health and wellness.
Whether in a poor or rich country, studies show breastfeeding significantly reduces the risk in infants for respiratory tract infections, diarrhea, asthma, allergies, childhood leukemia, many other infectious diseases and, over the course of a lifetime, Type 1 diabetes or obesity.
According to the World Health Organization, breastfeeding is the best form of nutrition for infants during the first 6 months of life. The American Academy of Pediatrics notes that breastfeeding is also beneficial for mothers as it lowers their risk of breast and ovarian cancers, lessens postpartum bleeding and even helps them lose the extra weight acquired during pregnancy faster.
23 JUly 2018: PEPFAR World Activities, 2018 - U.S. President's emergency plan for AIDS relief, JUNE 2018
SOURCE: Humanitarian Information Unit (HIU) & Office of the u.s. global aids coordinator and health diplomacy
Beyond The Map: PEPFAR Dashboards
Since its inception in 2003, the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has received strong bipartisan support in Congress and through administrations, including two reauthorizations with significant majorities. The United States is unquestionably the world’s leader in responding to the global HIV/AIDS crisis.
Working in over 50 countries, PEPFAR has transformed the global HIV/AIDS response. PEPFAR supports more than 14 million people with lifesaving antiretroviral treatment. This is compared with the only 50,000 people who were on treatment in sub-Saharan Africa when PEPFAR began.
For the first time, the latest PEPFAR data also show significant declines in new HIV diagnoses among adolescent girls and young women. In the 10 African countries (63 districts) implementing PEPFAR’s pioneering DREAMS (Determined, Resilient, Empowered, AIDS-free, Mentored, and Safe) public-private partnership, the majority (65 percent) of the highest-HIV-burden communities or districts achieved greater than a 25-40 percent decline in new HIV diagnoses among young women. Importantly, new diagnoses declined in nearly all DREAMS intervention districts.
With PEPFAR support, more than 2.2 million babies have been born HIV-free to pregnant women living with HIV and their mothers have been kept healthy and alive to protect and nurture them. PEPFAR also provides assistance to more than 6.4 million orphans, vulnerable children, and their caregivers.
PEPFAR continues to expand its impact by using data to drive accountability, find efficiencies, increase transparency, and leverage partnerships, including with the private sector. These efforts have made PEPFAR a model for development programs everywhere.
13 JUly 2018: NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF COUNTY & HEALTH OFFICIALS (naccho) dIRECTORY OF LOCAL HEALTH DEPARTMENTS, united states, JULY 2018
Beyond The Map: NACCHO Resource Hub
At NACCHO, we strive to be a leader, partner, catalyst, and voice for local health departments around the nation. All of our efforts focus on promoting health and equity, combating disease, and improving the quality and length of all lives.
The National Association of County Health Officials was founded in 1965. In early 1984, the organization experienced remarkable growth in membership and the organization opened its own office. In 1994, it was renamed to National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO).
Since its inception, NACCHO has sought to improve the public's health while adhering to a set of core values: equity, excellence, participation, respect, integrity, leadership, science & innovation.
Today, NACCHO comprises nearly 3,000 local health departments across the United States. Together, we form an organization focused on being a leader, partner, catalyst, and voice for change for local health departments around the nation.
3 JUly 2018: SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF P. falciparum REPRODUCTIVE NUMBER UNDER CONTROL, 2000-2016
SOURCE: MALARIA ATLAS PROJECT (MAP)
Beyond The Map: Country Profiles of malaria-endemic countries
THE MALARIA ATLAS PROJECT AIMS TO DISSEMINATE FREE, ACCURATE AND UP-TO-DATE GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION ON MALARIA AND ASSOCIATED TOPICS.
The Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) brings together a global network of researchers with expertise in a wide range of disciplines, from public health to mathematics, geography, and epidemiology. We work together to assemble global databases on malaria risk and intervention coverage and develop innovative analysis methods that use those data to address critical questions. These include better understanding the global landscape of malaria risk, how this is changing, and the impact of malaria interventions. By evaluating burden, trends, and impact at fine geographical scale we support informed decision making for malaria control at international, regional and national scales.
As part of this mission, MAP obtains, curates, and shares a wide variety of malariometric data. These include malaria cases reported by surveillance systems, nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of parasite rate, and satellite imagery capturing global environmental conditions that influence malaria transmission. The MAP group provides the outputs of our research, as well as broader technical advice and support, to National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs), non-governmental organisations (NGOs), Ministries of Health, and other third parties as part of our commitment to open access data.
MAP is led by Professor Peter Gething of The Big Data Institute at The University of Oxford. The MAP group comprises research staff conducting academic work and technical staff who deal with obtaining, curating, and disseminating data and providing mapping support to NGOs and NMCPs.
MAP is a World Health Organization (@WHO) Collaborating Centre.
The Malaria Atlas Project has received designation as a World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre in Geospatial Disease Modelling. This designation primarily recognises MAP’s contribution to supporting the modelling, monitoring and evaluation activities of the WHO Global Malaria Programme.
MAP collaborates with WHO on the estimation of malaria programme coverage and disease burden and projecting changes in malaria risk to 2040.
27 JUNE 2018: ESTIMATED potential range of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in the united states, 2017*
*These maps represent CDC’s best estimate of the potential range of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the United States. Maps do not represent risk for spread of disease.
CDC has updated the estimated range maps for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes by using a model that predicts possible geographic ranges for these mosquitoes in the contiguous United States. The model used county-level records, historical records, and suitable climate variables to predict the likelihood (very low, low, moderate, or high) that these mosquitoes could survive and reproduce if introduced to an area during the months when mosquitoes are locally active. These maps include areas where mosquitoes are or have been previously found. Maps do not represent risk for spread of disease. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes are more likely than Ae. albopictus mosquitoes to spread viruses like Zika, dengue, chikungunya and other viruses.
These maps show
- The estimated range maps have been updated using a predictive model that used county-level records, historical records, and suitable climate variables to predict the likelihood (very low, low, moderate, or high) that these mosquitoes could survive and reproduce if introduced to an area during the months when mosquitoes are locally active.
- These maps show CDC’s best estimate of the potential range of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the contiguous United States.
- These maps include areas where mosquitoes are or have been previously found.
- Maps do not represent risk for spread of disease.
These maps DO NOT show
- Likelihood that these mosquitoes will spread viruses. Shaded areas on the map do not necessarily mean that there are infected mosquitoes in that area.
- Numbers of mosquitoes: These maps do not show how many mosquitoes are living in an area. Mosquito population numbers vary widely across the shaded areas on the map, from high numbers of mosquitoes in some parts of the contiguous United States to rare reports of mosquitoes further north.
- Exact locations of mosquitoes: These maps are CDC’s best estimate of where mosquitoes could potentially live. Actual mosquito populations will vary by state and county. Mosquito populations may be found in an area that is not shaded on the maps and may not be found in all shaded areas.
- CDC is not able to predict exactly how much Zika or other viruses spread by Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus could spread if and when local mosquito-borne transmission is detected.
27 JUNE 2018: lightning fatalities by state, united states, 2008-2017
SOURCE: National Weather Service (NWS)
From 2006 through 2017, 376 people were struck and killed by lightning in the United States. Almost two thirds of the deaths occurred to people who had been enjoying outdoor leisure activities. The common belief that golfers are responsible for the greatest number of lightning deaths was shown to be a myth. During this 12-year period fishermen accounted for more than three times as many fatalities as golfers, while beach activities and camping each accounted for about twice as many deaths as golf. From 2006 to 2017, there were a total of 34 fishing deaths, 22 beach deaths, 19 camping deaths, and 17 boating deaths. Of the sports activities, soccer saw the greatest number of deaths with 12, as compared to golf with 10. Around the home, yard work (including mowing the lawn) accounted for 14 fatalities. For work-related activities, ranching/farming topped the list with 17 deaths.
Males accounted for 80% of all fatalities, and more than 90% of the deaths in the fishing, sports and work categories. Females had comparatively fewer deaths than men in every category, with their highest percentages in the boating-related activities (35%) and routine daily/weekly activities (34%).
June, July, and August are the peak months for lightning activity across the United States and the peak months for outdoor summer activities. As a result, more than 70% of the lightning deaths occurred in the months of June, July, and August, with Fridays, Saturdays, and Sundays having slightly more deaths than other days of the week.
Ages of the victims varied from young children to older adults with the greatest number of fatalities between the ages of 10 and 60. Within that age range, there was a relative minimum in deaths for people in their 30s, possibly due to parents of young children being less involved in vulnerable activities.
Based on the media reports of the fatal incidents, many victims were either headed to safety at the time of the fatal strike or were just steps away from safety. Continued efforts are needed to convince people to get inside a safe place before the lightning threat becomes significant. For many activities, situational awareness and proper planning are essential to safety.
20 JUNE 2018: ESTIMATED NUMBERS OF BIRTHS WITH SICKLE CELL ANAEMIA, 2015
SOURCE: nature reviews disease primers
Map: Gregory J. Kato, Frédéric B. Piel, Clarice D. Reid, Marilyn H. Gaston, Kwaku Ohene-Frempong, Lakshmanan Krishnamurti, Wally R. Smith, Julie A. Panepinto, David J. Weatherall, Fernando F. Costa & Elliott P. Vichinsky for Nature Reviews Disease Primers (@DiseasePrimers)
Data: United Nations World Population Prospects Database & Piel, F. B. et al. Global epidemiology of sickle haemoglobin in neonates: a contemporary geostatistical model-based map and population estimates. Lancet 381, 142–151 (2013).
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited disorders caused by mutations in HBB, which encodes haemoglobin subunit β. The incidence is estimated to be between 300,000 and 400,000 neonates globally each year, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Haemoglobin molecules that include mutant sickle β-globin subunits can polymerize; erythrocytes that contain mostly haemoglobin polymers assume a sickled form and are prone to haemolysis. Other pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to the SCD phenotype are vaso-occlusion and activation of the immune system.
SCD is characterized by a remarkable phenotypic complexity. Common acute complications are acute pain events, acute chest syndrome and stroke; chronic complications (including chronic kidney disease) can damage all organs. Hydroxycarbamide, blood transfusions and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation can reduce the severity of the disease. Early diagnosis is crucial to improve survival, and universal newborn screening programmes have been implemented in some countries but are challenging in low-income, high-burden settings.
13 JUNE 2018: disease outbreak monitoring and real-time surveillance of emerging public health threats, JUNe 2018
Data: ProMED Mail, World Health Organization, GeoSentinel, OIE - World Organisation for Animal Health, FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, EuroSurveillance, Google News, Moreover, Wildlife Data Integration Network, Baidu News 新闻, SOSO Info 资讯
HealthMap, a team of researchers, epidemiologists and software developers at Boston Children's Hospital founded in 2006, is an established global leader in utilizing online informal sources for disease outbreak monitoring and real-time surveillance of emerging public health threats. The freely available Web site 'healthmap.org' and mobile app 'Outbreaks Near Me' deliver real-time intelligence on a broad range of emerging infectious diseases for a diverse audience including libraries, local health departments, governments, and international travelers.
HealthMap brings together disparate data sources, including online news aggregators, eyewitness reports, expert-curated discussions and validated official reports, to achieve a unified and comprehensive view of the current global state of infectious diseases and their effect on human and animal health. Through an automated process, updating 24/7/365, the system monitors, organizes, integrates, filters, visualizes and disseminates online information about emerging diseases in nine languages, facilitating early detection of global public health threats.
Click on the button below to download their brochure and learn more.
23 MAY 2018: Selected significant climate anomalies and events, april 2018
Map & Data: NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Global Climate Report for April 2018, published online May 2018, retrieved on May 17, 2018 from https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/201804.
April 2018 was 3rd warmest on record for the globe
While North America had its coldest April since 2013, the rest of the world was downright balmy. Record and near-record-warm temperatures were felt across Europe and from Argentina to Australia, making it the third hottest April on record globally.
Climate by the numbers
The average global temperature for April 2018 was 1.49 degrees F above the 20th-century average of 56.7 degrees. This was the third highest for April in the 139-year record (1880–2018). Nine of the 10 warmest Aprils have occurred since 2005. April 2018 also marks the 42nd consecutive April and the 400th consecutive month with temperatures above the 20th-century average.
The year to date | January through April 2018
The year-to-date average global temperature was 1.37 degrees F above the 20th-century average of 54.8 degrees. This was the fifth warmest average temperature for the year to date on record and the coolest such period since 2014. The years 2015, 2016 and 2017 ranked among the three warmest year to date periods on record.
More notable climate facts and stats
Minimal sea ice at the poles
The average Arctic sea ice coverage (extent) in April was 6.8 percent below the 1981-2010 average, ranking it the second smallest extent since records began in 1979.
Antarctic sea ice coverage in April was 12.3 percent below average and the fifth smallest on record for April.
Warmer-than-average lands and oceans
The globally averaged, land surface temperature ranked ninth warmest for April and sixth warmest for the year to date (through April).
The globally averaged sea surface temperature was fourth warmest for April and fifth warmest for the year to date.
South America and Europe led the continents in warmth rankings
South America and Europe had their warmest April on record; Oceania, its second; Africa, its fifth; Asia, its ninth; and North America, its 94th (where 2018 tied with 1918 as 15th coldest).
16 MAY 2018: Today's Allergy Forecast Map
2 MAY 2018: real-time map of air pollution
SOURCE: Berkeley earth
Map & Data: Berkeley Earth
Real-time map of Air Pollution worldwide. Hourly, daily, and monthly views with locations of air quality monitoring stations.
25 APRIL 2018: IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE AND UNVACCINATED POPULATION FOR DTP1 (diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pertussis vaccine), 2000 - 2016
SOURCE: World Health ORganization
This animated time-series map by @WHO features worldwide coverage of dtp1 (diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pertussis vaccine) as well as the unvaccinated population by country from 2000 - 2016.
21 March 2018: School shootings in the United States
Source: NY Daily News
Everytown for Gun Safety defines a school shooting as
“...any time a firearm discharges a live round inside or into a school building or on or onto a school campus or grounds, as documented by the press and, when necessary, confirmed through further inquiries with law enforcement or school officials. Incidents in which guns were brought into schools but not discharged are not included.”
Watch the New York Daily News Interactive (@NYDNi) map-timeline of 2018 school shootings, or filter shootings by the state the shooting happened in, or by casualties.
14 March 2018: age-standardized mortality rate from drug use disorders between 1980 and 2014, both sexes
JAMA ARTICLE: Trends and Patterns of Geographic Variation in Mortality From Substance Use Disorders and Intentional Injuries Among US Counties, 1980-2014
Laura Dwyer-Lindgren, PhD; Amelia Bertozzi-Villa, MPH; Rebecca W. Stubbs, MA; Chloe Morozoff, MPH; Shreya Shirude, MPH; Jürgen Unützer, MD; Mohsen Naghavi, MD, PhD; Ali H. Mokdad, PhD; Christopher J. L. Murray, MD, DPhil
Between 1980 and 2014, there were 2 848 768 deaths due to substance use disorders and intentional injuries recorded in the United States. Mortality rates from alcohol use disorders (n = 256 432), drug use disorders (n = 542 501), self-harm (n = 1 289 086), and interpersonal violence (n = 760 749) varied widely among counties. Mortality rates decreased for alcohol use disorders, self-harm, and interpersonal violence at the national level between 1980 and 2014; however, over the same period, the percentage of counties in which mortality rates increased for these causes was 65.4% for alcohol use disorders, 74.6% for self-harm, and 6.6% for interpersonal violence. Mortality rates from drug use disorders increased nationally and in every county between 1980 and 2014, but the relative increase varied from 8.2% to 8369.7%. Relative and absolute geographic inequalities in mortality, as measured by comparing the 90th and 10th percentile among counties, decreased for alcohol use disorders and interpersonal violence but increased substantially for drug use disorders and self-harm between 1980 and 2014.