Map Of The Week

Our Map of the Week highlights noteworthy work in public health and/or Geography. check here each week for a new map.


17 april 2019: infant mortality rates for infants of non-hispanic black women, by state, united states, 2013 - 2015

SOURCE: Wisconisin public radio / us centers for disease control and prevention

Map & Data: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (@CDCgov)

Website: https://www.wpr.org/wisconsins-infant-mortality-african-americans-highest-nation

Beyond The Map: CDC Maternal and Child Health Epidemiology Program

African-American babies born in Wisconsin die before age 1 at a higher rate than any other state in the nation, according to a new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Nearly all states have racial disparities when it comes to infant mortality, but Wisconsin has the nation’s highest gap between white and black babies. According to infant mortality data compiled by the CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics, the rate of infant deaths for black babies in Wisconsin is nearly three times as high as white babies. 

"Plenty of states are twice as high and some are less than twice as high, so the picture there with the statistics is just not great. And that rate for Wisconsin is the highest we reported in the nation," said NCHS demographer T.J. Mathews.

Wisconsin boasted the highest infant mortality rate for infants born to non-Hispanic black women in the nation between 2013 and 2015 at 14.3 deaths per 1,000 babies. The national average for that same group was 11.1.


NATIONAL PUBLIC HEALTH WEEK (6 of 6) - SATURDAY & SuNDAY: GLOBAL HEALTH

6 april 2019: PEPFAR WORLD ACTIVITIES, 2018

SOURCE: OFFICE OF THE U.S. GLOBAL AIDS COORDINATOR AND HEALTH DIPLOMACY

23-JUL_Worldwide_PepfarPlansFY2017_2018Jun29_HIU_U1818.jpg

Map & Data: Humanitarian Information Unit (@StateHIU) & Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator and Health Diplomacy (@PEPFAR)

Websites: https://hiu.state.gov/ (HIU), https://www.pepfar.gov/ (PEPFAR)

Beyond The Map: PEPFAR Panorama Spotlight Dashboards

Since its inception in 2003, the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has received strong bipartisan support in Congress and through administrations, including two reauthorizations with significant majorities. The United States is unquestionably the world’s leader in responding to the global HIV/AIDS crisis.

Working in over 50 countries, PEPFAR has transformed the global HIV/AIDS response. PEPFAR supports more than 14 million people with lifesaving antiretroviral treatment. This is compared with the only 50,000 people who were on treatment in sub-Saharan Africa when PEPFAR began.

For the first time, the latest PEPFAR data also show significant declines in new HIV diagnoses among adolescent girls and young women. In the 10 African countries (63 districts) implementing PEPFAR’s pioneering DREAMS (Determined, Resilient, Empowered, AIDS-free, Mentored, and Safe) public-private partnership, the majority (65 percent) of the highest-HIV-burden communities or districts achieved greater than a 25-40 percent decline in new HIV diagnoses among young women. ‎Importantly, new diagnoses declined in nearly all DREAMS intervention districts.

With PEPFAR support, more than 2.2 million babies have been born HIV-free to pregnant women living with HIV and their mothers have been kept healthy and alive to protect and nurture them. PEPFAR also provides assistance to more than 6.4 million orphans, vulnerable children, and their caregivers.

PEPFAR continues to expand its impact by using data to drive accountability, find efficiencies, increase transparency, and leverage partnerships, including with the private sector. These efforts have made PEPFAR a model for development programs everywhere.


NATIONAL PUBLIC HEALTH WEEK (5 of 6) - friday: Climate change

5 april 2019: global climate impact map

SOURCE: climate impact lab

Map & Data: Climate Impact Lab (@impact_lab)

Websites: http://www.impactlab.org/

Beyond The Map: Estimating Economic Damage from Climate Change in the United States

Leveraging a first-of-its-kind, evidence-based, data-driven approach to quantify climate impacts — both past and future — using historical climate and socioeconomic data from around the world to understand the relationship between climate and society.

The Climate Impact Lab’s team of economists, climate scientists, data engineers, and risk analysts are building the world’s most comprehensive body of research quantifying the impacts of climate change sector-by-sector, community-by-community around the world. This research will allow decision-makers in the public and private sectors to understand the risks climate change presents and mitigate those risks through smarter investments and public policy. The research will also produce the world’s first empirically-derived estimate of the social cost of carbon — the cost to society from each ton of carbon dioxide emitted. This figure can serve as the basis for energy and climate policies.

An evidence-based approach

To project the future costs of climate change, the Climate Impact Lab looks first to historical, real-world experience. The Lab’s researchers combine historical socioeconomic and climate data, allowing the team to discover how a changing climate has impacted humanity—from the ways in which extended droughts have affected agricultural productivity in California to the ways in which heat waves have impacted mortality in India and labor productivity in China. Understanding these relationships allows the Lab to produce evidence-based insights about the real-world impacts of future climate change using projections of temperature, precipitation, humidity, and sea-level changes around the world at a subnational scale—from U.S. counties to Chinese provinces.

Combining local climate projections with historical observations yields a highly localized picture of future climate impacts. Cutting-edge research has identified ways in which changes to climatic conditions – such as abnormally warm summers – reduce economic activity, damage food production systems, increase social conflict, and generate migrants. The Lab employs detailed, risk-based, probabilistic, local climate projections to analyze how these impacts may evolve in the years ahead as a result of a changing climate. The analysis seeks to capture the economic risks of low-probability, high-impact climate events as well as the changes most likely to occur in the future. These impacts will also be monetized and aggregated to produce the world’s first empirically-derived estimate of the social cost of carbon — the cost to society done by each ton of carbon dioxide we emit — which will be designed to be fed directly into energy and climate policies around the world

Our analytical process is divided into three distinct components:

  1. Gather Detailed Global Data: The first step is an unprecedented effort to aggregate highly localized historical data across key social, economic, and climate indicators, including sea-level rise, temperature, precipitation, and humidity.

  2. Assess Climate-Driven Economic Changes: We analyze millions of historical observations culled from a surge in recent academic research to understand and quantify the relationship between a changing climate and social welfare across six principle categories, including: mortality, labor productivity, agriculture, conflict, infrastructure, and energy demand.

  3. Inform Decision-Making at the Macro and Micro Levels: Using this empirical analysis, we project how changes in the climate will impact society and the economy in the future. The climate-driven impacts are also monetized and aggregated to produce an empirically-derived estimate of the social cost of emitting a ton of carbon dioxide (CO2).


NATIONAL PUBLIC HEALTH WEEK (4 of 6) - THurSDAY: TECHNOLOGY & PUBLIC HEALTH

4 april 2019: United states HEALTH MAP

SOURCE: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME)

Map & Data: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (@IHME_UW)

Websites: http://www.healthdata.org/data-visualization/us-health-map

Beyond The Map: http://www.healthdata.org/us-health

ABOUT THE TOOL

With this interactive map, you can explore health trends in the United States at the county level for both sexes for:

  • 29 cancers

  • 21 major causes of death

  • Life expectancy

  • Smoking

  • Obesity

  • Physical activity

  • Alcohol use

  • Hypertension

  • Diabetes

In the United States, many aspects of health system performance are the responsibility of local governments, including state and county governments. In order to be responsive to the health needs of their populations, state- and county-level decision-makers need accurate information about local health trends and the risk factors driving these trends, as well as health system performance and whether their local health systems are delivering the interventions that will achieve good health outcomes.

The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study measures the toll of early death and disability caused by more than 300 diseases and injuries. The study produces estimates of life expectancy, causes of death, and nonfatal health loss for the US as a whole and for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Results are available by age group and sex for each cause of death and disability and more than 80 risk factors, from 1990 to the present.

Use these resources to find more information on the GBD US state-level work:

Health loss can only be properly addressed if resources, technology, and innovation are combined with an in-depth understanding of the current health spending landscape. IHME’s Disease Expenditure (DEX) research uncovers how resources are spent on US health care across health conditions, age groups, sexes, types of care, and time. These findings, in turn, can help health system researchers and policymakers identify the driving forces behind spending increases.


NATIONAL PUBLIC HEALTH WEEK (3 of 6) - wednesday: rural health

3 april 2019: rural data explorer

source: Rural Health Information Hub

Map & Data: Rural Health Information Hub (@ruralhealthinfo) & U.S. Census Bureau (@uscensusbureau), 2016 Small Area Health Insurance Estimates (SAHIE) program

Websites: https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org

Beyond The Map: https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/rural-maps

Printable map that shows percent of population without health insurance nationwide by county.

The Rural Health Information Hub produces maps on topics related to rural healthcare provision and access, as well as the health of rural populations.

These maps can be used to help others understand rural health issues. Feel free to include them in presentations, reports, grants, articles, and other formats to demonstrate rural health needs, disparities, and infrastructure.

Have an idea for a new RHIhub map? Let us know at info@ruralhealthinfo.org.


NATIONAL PUBLIC HEALTH WEEK (2 of 6) - tuesdaY: VIOLENCE PREVENTION

2 april 2019: The GUn Violence Map - five years of american shootings

SOURCE: The Trace

2-JAN_PHM-MOTW_TheTrace_2019-01-02.png

Map & Data: Daniel Nass (@dnlnss) of The Trace (@teamtrace) & Gun Violence Archive (@GunDeaths)

Websites: https://www.thetrace.org/https://www.gunviolencearchive.org/

Beyond The Map: https://www.thetrace.org/projects/shot-and-forgotten/

Earlier this December, The Trace published a map of more than 150,000 shootings that have occurred in America over the past five years. They created the tool because they believe that making data intimate and accessible — while also situating it in the bigger picture — is a powerful way to illustrate a vast and complex issue like gun violence. The map is powered by data collected by Gun Violence Archive, a nonprofit site that tracks incidents of gun violence in the United States.

Using the map’s search function, you can see the shootings that Gun Violence Archive has documented for an entire city or state, or within a mile of a specific address. Zoom in all the way, and you see the incidents scarring a single block; zoom out, and the urban areas that suffer gun violence’s disparities glow with the markers of a half-decade of violence.

Clicking on a point allows you to view the essential details of the specific incident. Every shooting has a story behind it, and the overwhelming majority of them don’t make national news. More detailed incident reports are available at Gun Violence Archive.

About the Data: This map was built with data collected by Gun Violence Archive, a nonprofit organization that gathers and verifies information about incidents of gun violence in the United States from media, law enforcement, and other sources. Its site launched in January 2014, and is now coming up on its fifth year in operation, allowing for a view of what a half-decade of gun violence in America looks like. The more than 150,000 incidents collected in this map cover the time period January 1, 2014 through December 13, 2018.

The map offers an incomplete picture of gun violence in the United States. Gun suicides, which make up the majority of firearm deaths, are not included because GVA only tracks them in aggregate. (Murder-suicides are included.) Incidents of gun violence for which GVA lacks precise location information have also been excluded.

While GVA frequently updates its records, it is possible that information in the map could be out of date or contain errors. If you spot an issue, please contact GVA.

Each incident is tagged based on several characteristics:

Mass shooting: A shooting in which four or more people, not including the shooter, were killed or injured.

Accidental: An unintentional shooting.

Officer involved: An incident in which a police officer was involved.

Child involved: A shooting in which the shooter and/or the victim were children.

More information on Gun Violence Archive's data can be found at itsmethodology page.

previous version of this project, created by The Trace and Slate, was published on December 8, 2015.


NATIONAL PUBLIC HEALTH WEEK (1 of 6) - MONDAY: HEALTHY COMMUNITIES

1 april 2019: 2019 COUNTY HEALTH RANKINGS, UNITED STATES

SOURCE: countyhealthrankings.org

Map & Data: County Health Rankings (@CHRankings), Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (@RWJF)

Websites: http://www.countyhealthrankings.org/, https://www.rwjf.org/

Beyond The Map: Explore the Interactive County Healthy Rankings Model

By ranking the health of nearly every county in the nation, County Health Rankings & Roadmaps (CHR&R) illustrates how where we live affects how well and how long we live. CHR&R also shows what each of us can do to create healthier places to live, learn, work, and play – for everyone. This year highlights an important element that shapes how well and how long we live: secure, affordable housing.

Summary of Key Findings

  • Across the U.S., more than 1 in 10 households (11%) spend more than half of their income on housing costs (severe housing cost burden). Among those who own their home, housing cost burden has decreased in the past decade. At the same time, there has been no improvement in the rates among renters. Housing cost burden remains substantially higher among renters than owners, particularly for households with low incomes.

  • Severe housing cost burden affects health and is linked to barriers to living long and well. Across counties, increases in the share of households severely cost burdened are associated with more food insecurity, more child poverty, and more people in fair or poor health.

  • More segregated counties have higher rates of severe cost burden, for both White and Black households. However, Black residents face greater barriers to opportunity and health than White residents. Nearly 1 in 4 Black households spend more than half of their income on housing.

  • Owning a home can, over time, help build savings for education or for other opportunities important to health and future family wealth. In large urban and smaller metro counties, the vast majority of households headed by Whites own their home, while more than half of households headed by Blacks are renters, rather than homeowners. In the past decade, trends in home ownership rates have changed little on average, though gaps among racial/ethnic groups are widening.


20 MARCH 2019: Rates of hiv diagnoses in the us, 2017

SOURCE: US CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION (CDC)

WK3_PHM_MOTW_CDC-HIV-2017_2019-03-20.png

Map & Data: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (@CDCGov)

Websites: https://www.cdc.gov/, https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/statistics/overview/geographicdistribution.html

Beyond The Map: https://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/end-hiv/

In the United States (US), HIV diagnoses are not evenly distributed across states and regions. Southern states accounted for more than half of the 38,739 new HIV diagnoses in 2017.

Overall, in the 50 states and the District of Columbia only, the majority of people who receive an HIV diagnosis live in urban areas. But in the South, 23% of new HIV diagnoses are in suburban and rural areas, and in the Midwest 21% are suburban or rural—higher proportions than in the Northeast and West. The South’s larger and more geographically dispersed population of people living with HIV creates unique challenges for prevention and treatment.

Understanding the places and populations that are most affected by HIV allows the federal government to allocate its resources to the geographic areas where they are needed most, while still supporting a basic level of HIV education and prevention for everyone across the country.

The Numbers

HIV Diagnoses

In 2017:

  • The South made up 52% (19,968) of the new HIV diagnoses in the US, followed by the West (7,270; 19%), the Northeast (6,011; 16%), and the Midwest (5,032; 13%). US dependent areas made up 458 (1%) of new HIV diagnoses.

  • The rates (per 100,000 people) of HIV diagnoses were 16.1 in the South, 12.3 in the US dependent areas, 10.6 in the Northeast, 9.4 in the West, and 7.4 in the Midwest.

From 2012 to 2016:

HIV diagnoses remained stable in the US, although some decreases were seen in regions with fewer diagnoses.

  • US dependent areas: Decreased 27%.

  • Northeast: Decreased 17%.

  • Midwest: Decreased 6%.

  • South: Remained stable.

  • West: Remained stable.


2 JANUARY 2019: The GUn Violence Map - five years of american shootings

SOURCE: The Trace

Map & Data: Daniel Nass (@dnlnss) of The Trace (@teamtrace) & Gun Violence Archive (@GunDeaths)

Websites: https://www.thetrace.org/https://www.gunviolencearchive.org/

Beyond The Map: https://www.thetrace.org/projects/shot-and-forgotten/

Earlier this December, The Trace published a map of more than 150,000 shootings that have occurred in America over the past five years. They created the tool because they believe that making data intimate and accessible — while also situating it in the bigger picture — is a powerful way to illustrate a vast and complex issue like gun violence. The map is powered by data collected by Gun Violence Archive, a nonprofit site that tracks incidents of gun violence in the United States.

Using the map’s search function, you can see the shootings that Gun Violence Archive has documented for an entire city or state, or within a mile of a specific address. Zoom in all the way, and you see the incidents scarring a single block; zoom out, and the urban areas that suffer gun violence’s disparities glow with the markers of a half-decade of violence.

Clicking on a point allows you to view the essential details of the specific incident. Every shooting has a story behind it, and the overwhelming majority of them don’t make national news. More detailed incident reports are available at Gun Violence Archive.

About the Data: This map was built with data collected by Gun Violence Archive, a nonprofit organization that gathers and verifies information about incidents of gun violence in the United States from media, law enforcement, and other sources. Its site launched in January 2014, and is now coming up on its fifth year in operation, allowing for a view of what a half-decade of gun violence in America looks like. The more than 150,000 incidents collected in this map cover the time period January 1, 2014 through December 13, 2018.

The map offers an incomplete picture of gun violence in the United States. Gun suicides, which make up the majority of firearm deaths, are not included because GVA only tracks them in aggregate. (Murder-suicides are included.) Incidents of gun violence for which GVA lacks precise location information have also been excluded.

While GVA frequently updates its records, it is possible that information in the map could be out of date or contain errors. If you spot an issue, please contact GVA.

Each incident is tagged based on several characteristics:

Mass shooting: A shooting in which four or more people, not including the shooter, were killed or injured.

Accidental: An unintentional shooting.

Officer involved: An incident in which a police officer was involved.

Child involved: A shooting in which the shooter and/or the victim were children.

More information on Gun Violence Archive's data can be found at itsmethodology page.

previous version of this project, created by The Trace and Slate, was published on December 8, 2015.